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//Spine and Back Care

Alif: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (with bone graft and metal plate)

2018-07-26T09:21:37+00:00November 11th, 2017|

Alif: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (with bone graft and metal plate) Overview ALIF, or Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion, is utilized to relieve back and leg pain caused by degenerative disc disease. This procedure helps stabilize the spine by fusing the affected vertebrae together with material from a bone graft. Incision Made The surgeon will create a three to five-inch incision either directly in the center or on the side of the stomach. Disc Removed Next, the damaged disc is partially removed from the body. Portions of the disc wall are left in place to help the bone graft bind to a natural structure. Implantation The graft will be placed in the empty disc space [...]

Alif: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (with bone graft and pedicle screws)

2018-07-26T09:52:56+00:00November 11th, 2017|

Alif: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (with bone graft and pedicle screws) Overview Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion is a procedure utilized by orthopedic surgeons to correct severe leg and back pain. Degenerative disc disease is the source of spinal complication and is fixed through fusing bone graft material to the existing vertebrae. Incision Made To perform the procedure the surgeon will create a three or five-inch incision. This incision is made in one of two locations: directly above or on the side of the stomach. Disc Removed As the lumbar fusion procedure continues, the damaged disc is partially removed. Parts of the disc wall are left behind to help contain the bone graft replacement. Implantation [...]

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)

2018-07-26T09:42:18+00:00November 11th, 2017|

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) Overview An anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery, or ACDF, removes a herniated or degenerative vertebral disc in the neck with a bone graft replacement. This procedure is performed to relive stressful pain triggers on the spinal nerves. Preparation Before the procedure begins, you’re positioned on your back and anesthetized so the surgeon can make a small incision in the front of the neck. The structures within the neck are carefully moved aside to create a reasonable, non-invasive path to the spine. The damaged discs will be removed to leave space between the vertebrae. Graft Inserted The bone graft – commonly taken from the hip, a bone donor [...]

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (Intervertebral Spacer)

2018-07-26T09:50:15+00:00November 11th, 2017|

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (Intervertebral Spacer) Overview Anterior cervical discectomy and fusions can be performed with an intervertebral spacer as a secondary tactic to the procedure. The goal of this surgery is to relieve neck and chronic arm pain from stress triggered by discs pressing on nerve roots. Incision Created An incision is made on the front of the neck to begin the procedure and for easy access to reach the vertebral discs. Disc Removed Removing the damaged discs provide immediate relief on the affected nerves. Pain alleviation can be seen very quickly, however a replacement must be inserted to fill in the vertebral gap and promote full functional support and mobility. Spacer [...]

Anterior Endoscopic Cervical Microdiscetomy

2018-07-26T09:30:04+00:00November 11th, 2017|

Anterior Endoscopic Cervical Microdiscetomy Overview Anterior endoscopic cervical microdiscectomy procedures are minimally invasive surgeries performed to remove a herniated cervical disc with unnatural bulging. The surgery is conducted through a tiny hole in the neck and is designed to relieve chronic neck and arm pain from compressed nerve roots. Preparation The surgeon will need access to the front of the neck to perform the surgery, so the patient will lie on their back as the area is sterilized while receiving anesthesia. Accessing the Disc When the small-hole incision is made in the neck, the vital structures are pushed aside as the surgeon inserts a fluoroscope to guide his or her instruments towards the disc surface. A [...]

Back to Life Clinic

2018-10-04T15:31:28+00:00August 25th, 2017|

The Back to Life Clinic at Illinois Bone & Joint Institute Back pain is a life-altering and often debilitating ailment that afflicts millions of people every day. Back health is essential for leading a full and active life, yet, many people are kept from simple daily tasks due to chronic pain and immobility. The Back to Life Clinic at IBJI is dedicated to helping you develop a comprehensive treatment plan from proper diagnosis to treatment and maintenance. A leading staff of highly-trained Illinois physicians, pain management specialists, and physical therapists work with you to offer individualized care. Treatment plans aim to help restore mobility, reduce pain, build strength, and improve overall quality of life. The IBJI [...]

Alfonso Bello, MD

2019-01-02T10:18:00+00:00October 17th, 2017|

Dr. Alfonso Bello is a board-certified rheumatologist with an additional board certification in pain medicine. He provides care for arthritis, osteoporosis and inflammatory diseases. Dr. Bello provides advanced treatments, including the latest forms of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and biologic therapies. He puts particular emphasis on strategies to control patients’ pain, whatever the cause may be. He takes a holistic approach that combines medication with physical therapy, nutritional therapy and other treatments. His goal is to put patients’ illnesses into remission and to restore their quality of life. Dr. Bello is the director of rheumatologic research at IBJI. He and his fellow IBJI rheumatologists are conducting multiple clinical trials of new medications, providing patients with the opportunity to take part in these [...]

Gregory Brebach, MD

2018-12-14T08:50:09+00:00October 18th, 2017|

Dr. Greg Brebach is a board-certified Orthopedic Surgeon, fellowship-trained in spinal surgery. His practice is limited to disorders of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Originally from the Barrington area, he graduated from Barrington High School. He joined Lake Cook Orthopedics, a Division of Illinois Bone & Joint Institute in 2003 after finishing first in his class at Rush Medical College and completing his Spine Fellowship at William Beaumont Hospital near Detroit, Michigan. Since 2007, Dr. Brebach has been on the Board of Directors of Wellness Place, a cancer recovery and education center. He lives in the Barrington area with his wife Elissa and their children, Nina and Henry.

Cervical Disc Replacement

2017-11-27T10:13:48+00:00September 11th, 2011|Orthopedics Care|

For many years patients with cervical radiculopathy, or “pinched nerves” in their neck, have been treated with surgery when other simpler treatments such as medications, physical therapy, or injections fail to help. […]

Brian Clay, MD

2018-12-27T14:03:04+00:00October 18th, 2017|

Dr. Brian Clay is a physiatrist and interventional pain management specialist, fellowship trained in anesthesia pain medicine. As a physiatrist, Dr. Clay is a nerve, muscle and bone expert who treats injuries and illnesses that impact how the human body moves. Many of Dr. Clay’s patients rely on him to manage painful arthritic conditions affecting peripheral joints and pain due to disorders of the cervical and lumbar spine. He also works with individuals who have suffered traumatic brain or spinal cord injuries. Another key area of expertise is outpatient sports medicine. Born and raised in Chicago, Dr. Clay has been fascinated by science since childhood. After earning an undergraduate degree in biochemistry and completing medical school, he concentrated his focus [...]

Don’t Despair A Degenerative Disc Disease Diagnosis

2017-11-22T09:01:06+00:00February 15th, 2012|Orthopedics Care|

As every person ages they will begin to damage their spinal discs but most people will never know the pain of degenerative disc disease (DDD). The name is potentially misleading though. It is actually a condition, not a disease, which usually affects either the lumbar or cervical regions in the back. It is a result of the normal movement over a lifetime that causes deterioration of the discs in the spine. […]

Jonathan Erulkar, MD

2018-12-27T13:26:34+00:00October 20th, 2017|

Dr. Jonathan Erulkar is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon who specializes in non-operative and operative management of cervical (neck), thoracic (upper back), and lumbar (lower back) conditions. In providing care, Dr. Erulkar tailors his treatments to the individual patient by correlating and considering medical history, physical examination, diagnostic imaging as well as work/social circumstances. He strives to guide and educate his patients through non-operative treatments as well as considering their surgical options. He is experienced in performing microdiscectomy, laminectomy, spinal fusion and instrumentation surgeries. In many cases, these can be performed using minimally invasive techniques which can reduce post- operative strain on the patient and minimize recovery times. Dr. Erulkar completed a combined Spine Surgery Fellowship at the New England Baptist [...]

Theodore Fisher, MD

2018-12-27T13:24:58+00:00October 20th, 2017|

Dr. Theodore Fisher is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon who specializes in treating cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-back) and lumbar (lower back) spine problems in adults and children. He provides care across the spectrum of spinal disorders, including scoliosis (curvature of the spine) degenerative diseases such as arthritis, disc herniation and spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal), tumors, and fractures. In many cases, Dr. Fisher is able to treat patients with non-surgical methods. When surgery is needed, he often is able to perform minimally invasive procedures, which decrease patient discomfort and speed recovery times. They include disc replacements, spinal fusions (joining bones of the spine), microdisectomy, laminectomy and kyphoplasty (a minimally invasive treatment for spine fractures caused by osteoporosis). In providing care, Dr. [...]

Thomas Gleason, MD

2018-12-27T12:50:53+00:00October 20th, 2017|

A founding member of Illinois Bone & Joint Institute, Dr. Thomas F. Gleason is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon who specializes in treating spinal problems in adults and performing hip and knee joint replacements. He offers patients an array of treatment options for spine conditions, including cervical and lumbar disk replacements, laminectomy, spinal fusion, microendoscopic discectomy, intradiscal electrothermal therapy and kyphoplasty. Dr. Gleason also performs other procedures including arthroscopy, total knee replacement and total hip replacement. The son of an orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Gleason was inspired by the difference his father made in patients’ lives and the satisfaction it gave him. He keeps informed of the latest developments in his field through his work as a reviewer of articles submitted for publication [...]

Mark Gross, MD

2018-12-27T12:14:18+00:00October 22nd, 2017|

Dr. Mark Gross is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon who has been in practice at Lake Cook Orthopedics, a division of IBJI, since 1985. His clinical interests include the treatment of spinal disorders, arthritis, sports medicine, fractures, pediatric orthopedics, hand problems and neurologic abnormalities. He specializes in comprehensive, conservative and surgical interventions within these areas. Dr. Gross is a Fellow of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, a member of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery and of the North American Spine Society. As well, he has given numerous community presentations in the areas of sports medicine, arthritis management, joint arthroplasty, and the treatment of spinal disorders. Currently, Dr. Gross is an Attending Physician at Advocate Good Shepherd Hospital in Barrington and is [...]

Matthew L. Jimenez, MD

2018-12-27T11:52:27+00:00October 23rd, 2017|

Matthew L. Jimenez, M.D., FACS is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon, fellowship-trained in joint and pelvis reconstruction, specializing in orthopedic fracture care and joint reconstruction. His patient-centered focus is on soft-tissue preservation and rapid recovery. He has a special interest and expertise in the Direct Anterior Approach for total hip arthroplasty. Dr. Jimenez received his M.D. degree from the University of Iowa College of Medicine in 1989 after completing his undergraduate training at the University of Utah. After earning his medical degree, Dr. Jimenez completed his residency in orthopaedic surgery at Northwestern University. He then completed a one-year post graduate fellowship in orthopaedic trauma and joint reconstruction at the University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Medical Center, under the direction of Dr. Marvin Tile. [...]

Jim’s Story

2018-07-27T14:03:43+00:00July 27th, 2018|

Recently I hurt my back for the first time.  Waking up the next morning, I was in great pain, and almost unable to move.  This was also 3 days before my wife and I were taking a 3 week bicycle trip celebrating her recent retirement.  I was eventually able to get myself to the IBIJ Ortho Access facility in Glenview.  Fantastically, they got me in within minutes, gathering my information and getting an initial set of x-rays as quickly and easily as I could imagine.  Once back in the examination room and after only a short wait, I met with Dr. Gary Shapiro, a spine specialist.  After reviewing the x-rays, Dr. Shapiro very patiently listened to the story, asked great [...]

Where Lower Back Pain Begins

2018-06-27T11:39:34+00:00November 11th, 2017|

Where Lower Back Pain Begins Overview Lower back pain is a common problem that can severely impact the quality of your life. Many different causes may lead to pain in your lower back and it can limit your ability to be active or even miss work. About the Lumbar Spine Learning about the structure of the lumbar spine will help you better understand back pain. The lumbar spine is located in the lower back and is made up of five vertebrae. Between these vertebrae are discs that cushion the bones and allow the spine to bend and twist.  Spinal Nerves The structure of the spine protects the nerves that ravel through a space [...]

Steven M. Mardjetko, MD

2018-12-27T13:06:53+00:00October 20th, 2017|

Dr. Steven Mardjetko is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon specializing in treating spine conditions, with an emphasis on pediatric spinal deformities, including early onset spinal deformity. He provides the gamut of treatment options for very young children all the way to adults, including advanced techniques not widely available. Because he treats adults as well as children and has been in practice for more than two decades, Dr. Mardjetko is able to understand how a spinal condition will affect a child later in life and to provide treatment that keeps long-term outcomes in mind. He was drawn to the challenge of pediatric orthopedics. He honed his abilities caring for children with rare conditions for 17 years at Shriners Hospital for Children in [...]

Mark Mikhael, MD

2019-01-04T12:57:22+00:00October 20th, 2017|

Dr. Mark Mikhael is an orthopedic surgeon specializing in surgical treatment of spine disorders such as disc herniations, stenosis, fractures, instability and degeneration (arthritis). His special interest is in complex cervical spine surgery. Whenever possible, he offers minimally invasive surgical techniques, which help avoid complications and reduce patient recovery times. He also has extensive experience in nerve decompression surgery and complex spinal reconstruction. Dr. Mikhael works with each patient to explore conservative treatment options before pursuing surgery. His goal for each patient is to increase their ability to engage in the activities they enjoy while reducing their pain and discomfort. He keeps informed of the latest developments in his field through his work as a manuscript reviewer for the journal [...]

David Norbeck, MD

2018-12-27T13:17:53+00:00October 20th, 2017|

Dr. David Norbeck joined Lake Cook Orthopedics, a Division of Illinois Bone & Joint Institute in 1989 as a general orthopedist treating all orthopedic problems. After performing orthopedic surgery for 25 years, Dr. Norbeck now works to treat orthopedic problems non-operatively. He maintains full medical staff privileges at Good Shepherd Hospital in Barrington, Illinois and is Board Certified by the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery. He is also a Fellow in the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Dr. Norbeck is a native of the western suburbs of Chicago. He is married with two children and enjoys reading non-fiction. He went back to school in 2012 for a Masters in Theological Studies at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School and now serves in [...]

Rhutav Parikh, MD

2018-12-27T13:28:36+00:00October 19th, 2017|

Dr. Rhutav Parikh is a board-certified physician specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation. He provides diagnosis and non-operative treatment and management of orthopaedic conditions, especially back and neck pain, musculoskeletal and sports related injuries, work injuries and arthritis and rheumatologic conditions. In addition, Dr. Parikh provides pain management care, including joint injections, electrodiagnostic medicine/EMG and nerve conduction studies. In providing care, Dr. Parikh works to build strong relationships with his patients and provide them with compassionate support. He aims to provide the most comprehensive, conscientious and innovative rehabilitation care in order to maximize function for patients so that they can return to the activities they enjoy. Dr. Parikh serves as a team physician at the College of Lake County in [...]

Jack Perlmutter, MD

2018-12-27T13:32:43+00:00October 18th, 2017|

Dr. Jack Perlmutter is a Board-Certified Orthopedic Surgeon at Lake Cook Orthopedics, a Division of Illinois Bone & Joint Institute where he has worked since 1997. He is trained in the latest minimally invasive technologies used to treat the spine, his area of specialty. Dr. Perlmutter is a Fellow of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the North American Spine Society. He is also a member of the American Medical Association and the Illinois State Medical Society. He takes the time to perform a thorough evaluation of every patient and their problem(s).  Not all spine problems require surgery.  We have at our disposal the most advanced diagnostic technologies.  If appropriate, non-operative treatments will be attempted.  These may include medications, [...]

E. Quinn Regan, MD

2018-12-27T13:51:49+00:00October 18th, 2017|

Dr. E. Quinn Regan is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon who specializes in treating cervical and lumbar degenerative disease such as spinal tumors, spinal stenosis, herniated disks, sciatica and cervical radiculopathy. Taking advantage of advances in the field that have produced treatments unavailable even ten years ago, Dr. Regan offers patients the latest treatments, including minimally invasive surgery. Dr. Regan originally studied engineering in college, but discovered he wanted a career that would help people directly. Spinal surgery allows him to apply his engineering background to the treatment of the human body. He has suffered from back pain himself for 25 years. He brings to his patients a compassion for their conditions based on his own experience. His goal as a [...]

David Schneider, DO

2019-01-02T08:50:57+00:00October 18th, 2017|

Dr. David Schneider grew up outside Detroit, Michigan. After completing his medical education and serving as an Undersea Medical Officer in the Navy, he finished his residency and fellowship. He joined Lake Cook Orthopedics, a Division of Illinois Bone & Joint Institute in 1998. Currently, Dr. Schneider sees a variety of patients with bone, tendon, muscle, joint, and brain diseases. As a physiatrist, he works in partnership with the orthopedic surgeons at Lake Cook Orthopedics, a Division of Illinois Bone & Joint Institute to meet the diverse needs of patients. His special interests include treating patients with sports and spine problems. He is a member of various organizations, including the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, the American Association [...]

Scoliosis Pain Management and Treatment

2017-11-22T08:57:09+00:00November 22nd, 2011|Orthopedics Care|

Signs & Symptoms Over 7 million people in the United States are affected by scoliosis, which is actually a descriptive term , not an actual disease. Scoliosis describes a curvature of the spine sometimes appearing to look like an S when viewed in an xray. This curvature can lead to a great deal of pain because of the added strain it places on the muscles in the back and the pressure placed on the other joints and bones in the body. The symptoms of scoliosis are varied but can include uneven muscles on tone side of the spine, hips being uneven lengths, a rib or shoulder blade that sticks out, and nerves responding slowly. How Scoliosis Is Caused Most usually [...]

Scoliosis Treatment

2017-11-17T19:38:39+00:00August 25th, 2017|

Scoliosis Treatments in IL Scoliosis is an irregular curvature of the spine that often appears before the onset of puberty. While many may go through life unaffected by this abnormality, others suffer from complications, such as chronic pain or difficulty breathing. At IBJI, expert physicians and staff work closely with you to find the best treatment plan possible. With one of the largest orthopedic practices in Illinois, IBJI has 20 locations in and around the Chicago area. Find the orthopedic location nearest you for consultation and treatment.   Scoliosis Symptoms and Signs In more severe instances of scoliosis, the spine may curve beyond 20-25 degrees and symptoms may become noticeable. As the degree of the curve [...]

Gary Shapiro, MD

2019-01-02T09:27:05+00:00October 18th, 2017|

Dr. Gary Shapiro is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon who specializes in treating spine problems in adults and children. He has particular interest in sports related spinal injuries and has treated professional athletes from around the world, including serving for three years as the official spine surgeon for the Chicago Bears. In many cases, Dr. Shapiro is able to treat patients with non-surgical methods. When surgery is needed, he often is able to perform minimally invasive procedures, which decrease patient discomfort and speed recovery times. The combination of his interest in science and his desire to help people led Dr. Shapiro to become a doctor. His care is marked by his empathy for patients and true commitment to their best interests. [...]

Charles Slack, MD

2019-01-02T10:01:42+00:00October 17th, 2017|

Dr. Charles Slack is a board-certified orthopaedic surgeon specializing in treating disorders of the spine, including herniated (ruptured) disks and spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal). He provides non-surgical treatment for the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) spine and surgical treatment of the lumbar spine. When medically advisable, Dr. Slack offers patients microscopic surgery, a form of minimally invasive surgery that uses advanced microscopes to view the surgical area, which decreases pain and speeds recovery times. He also provides the latest forms of injection therapy to treat degenerative disorders of the spine. Since he was young, Dr. Slack wanted to become a doctor and was inspired in part by his own family doctor, who was thoroughly dedicated to [...]

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Boston Scientific)

2018-07-26T10:07:57+00:00November 11th, 2017|

Spinal Cord Stimulation (Boston Scientific) Overview Spinal cord stimulation (also called SCS) uses electrical impulses to relieve chronic pain of the back, arms, and legs. It is believed that electrical pulses prevent pain signals from being received by the brain. SCS candidates include people who suffer from neuropathic pain and for whom conservative treatments have failed. Trial Implantation First, the injection site is anesthetized. One or more insulated wire leads are then inserted through an epidural needle or through a small incision into the space surrounding the spinal cord, called the epidural space. Find the Right Location Electrodes at the end of the lead produce electrical pulses that stimulate the nerves, blocking pain signals. The patient [...]

Spine and Back Care

2018-11-14T16:59:01+00:00August 25th, 2017|

Spine and Back Pain Relief in IL IBJI is home to one of the largest, most experienced teams of orthopedic back and spine specialists in Illinois. Back pain has a debilitating reputation, and for good reason. A nagging back condition can affect every element of your daily life, whether it’s carrying laundry, walking your dog, or even just driving to the store. IBJI’s specialized back and spine orthopedists are experts in the diagnosis and treatment of the region’s bone and joint disorders, including sports injuries, arthritis, spinal disorders, and physical trauma. Many of our doctors will sub-specialize in a specific region of the spine and back, ensuring that no matter what your condition, it will be [...]

Spine Surgery

2017-11-17T19:37:33+00:00August 25th, 2017|

Back and Spine Surgery in IL The thought of surgery can be quite intimidating. Luckily, back and spine surgery is typically considered only when other options have been exhausted. In many cases, the back and spine can be rehabilitated without the need for surgery. Pain management, physical therapy and other treatments, such as those implemented at IBJI’s Back to Life Clinic, can help to restore full functionality and relieve pain in the majority of patients. When surgery is necessary, IBJI is equipped with highly-trained staff and surgeons, up-to-date technologies, and the most comfortable facilities to guide you through the process with ease. IBJI has 20 locations in and around greater Chicago, IL for ultimate convenience. Find [...]

Susan’s Story

2017-11-17T14:15:48+00:00January 8th, 2017|

I could barely walk and I was crying when I walked in IBJI. Asked to see a doctor and Dr. Brian Clay treated me over a period of several months. He was fabulous. I had several things going on besides a pinched nerve. I had three injections and therapy. I am 70 years old and very active. I occasionally do the exercises I learned in therapy, I am careful about certain movements concerning my back, but I have been totally free from that excruciating sciatica pain. Thank you Dr. Brian Clay.

Stanford Tack, MD

2019-01-02T10:36:12+00:00October 17th, 2017|

Dr. Stanford Tack is a board-certified orthopaedic surgeon who specializes in treating disorders of the cervical and lumbar spine in adults. He provides care for stenosis, herniated disks and spondylolisthesis. Dr. Tack has extensive experience in performing cervical disk replacement in patients who previously have been treated with cervical fusion. He performs most of his procedures using minimally invasive techniques that reduce patients’ pain and speed their recovery times. Dr. Tack usually is able to perform surgery as an outpatient procedure, and patients typically do not require physical therapy or other post-operative care. The son of a nurse, Dr. Tack inherited his mother’s aptitude for caring for others, which combined with his interest in science led him to become a [...]

Test News Story One

2017-10-25T18:56:54+00:00October 25th, 2017|

Testing news story one. This is one amazing story. Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and of having nothing to do. Once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, "and what is the use of a book," thought Alice, "without pictures or conversations?"

XLIF Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

2018-06-27T11:16:40+00:00November 11th, 2017|

XLIF Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion Overview The Axial Lumbar Interbody Fusion is a minimally invasive surgery performed under general anesthesia. The surgical procedure removes portions of a diseased or damaged disc in the lumbar spine. A device is later implanted into its place to secure one or more vertebrae to the sacrum. This spine pain relief approach is typically used to treat back pain caused by a degenerative disc between the lowest lumbar vertebra (L5) and the top of the sacrum (S1). Preparation The patient is anesthetized before the procedure and places in a face down position to provide access to the lower back. The area is then cleaned and sterilized. Creating the [...]